High Value Crops for Deep Shade Forest Farming


(fungi) – shiitake, oyster, lions mane, reishi mushrooms

pawpaw –


mexican breadfruit


rubus sp. – (blackberry…)

ribes sp. – (currant/gooseberry…)




maca – root vegetable, adaptogenic medicinal herb





allium sp. – (garlic/onion…)

rheum sp. – (rhubarb…)




(fungi) – shiitake, oyster, lions mane, reishi mushrooms


rubus sp. – (blackberry/raspberry…)

ribes sp. – (currant/gooseberry…)





allium sp. – (garlic/onion…)

rheum sp. – (rhubarb…)




(fungi) – shiitake, oyster, lions mane, reishi mushrooms


rubus sp. – (raspberry…)






allium sp. – (garlic/onion…)

rheum sp. – (rhubarb…)

Farming Biodiversity


GRAFTING – grafting is an extremely useful tool for sensitive breeding conditions, although it is currently over-used and weakening the already thin biodiversity among gardening

CLONING (vegetative propagation) – specifically used for intensive culture plants usually food production and sometimes conservation.

DIRECT SEEDING – used to ensure efficient epigenetics, pristine root systems, and native microbial relations.

NATURAL SELECTION – the natural evolution of life on Earth

ARTIFICIAL SELECTION/GENETIC MODIFICATION – specifically selected seed from favorable plants and hybridizing various plants to combine traits. A type of genetic pruning.

GENETIC ENGINEERING/GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISM – specific changes to the DNA of plants, likened to genetic surgery.

DOMESTICATED PLANTS – domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group. Domestication is found most frequently around rapidly expanding civilizations, to leverage quality resources from degraded environments.

OVER-DOMESTICATED PLANTS – very thin and small pool of genetic variation. Very liable to insect, environmental and microbial diseases. When plants are over-domesticated, they become less valuable than the cost/value of maintaining them. At this point they will require a very specific and ‘soft’ environment, needing large amounts of freely available nutrient. Grafting, nutrient pollution (even organic operations), and many other human supports become common place.

PLANT BREEDING TECHNIQUES (its all about probability, fight or flight, and the niche environments. These are some of the main organs for the cultivation of biodiversity.)



plant breeding should rarely ever aim to eliminate any phenotypes for the sake of others.

Basic California Food Forestry

Compared with wasting away under modern conditions of employment. We have the choice to empower ourselves and take responsibility for the needs of our life (with slow and steady investments from industrial culture into the natural world). So, here… we’ll start with at least one of the biggest parts of our life’s – FOOD. Now, if you don’t already know the importance of quality land, with a quality supply of water, then this article is for you in a few years. After you have returned to the natural world and have your sight set on food systems… This is your initial guide to effortless food forestry (California – SUBTROPICS):

Several Popular, California-native plants are highly edible, fast growing and effortless to grow. Mulberry and Fig cuttings for example root with very high success in any medium, in about a weeks time. Most people live within an easy drive of one or many sources of seed/cuttings for these plants:





Gooseberries + Currants

Black Walnuts

Sunchokes/Jerusalem Artichokes


Miscellaneous Native Edibles that can be easily established almost anywhere in California, WITHOUT irrigation and/or fertilization:

Umbellularia californica (CA laurel) – to 100ft., flesh and kernel of CA laurel’s fruit is edible

Amaranthus sp. (Amaranth)

Berberis sp. (Barberry, Oregon-grape)

Castonopsis = Chrysolepis sp. (Chinquapin) – native nut tree

Quercus sp. (Oaks)

Lithocarpus densiflora (Tankbark oak)

Corylus cornuta (Hazelnut, Filbert)

Campanula rotundifolia (bluebell bell-flower)

Orobanche sp. (Broom-rape)

Opuntia sp. (prickly pear) –

Lomatium sp.

Sium sauve (Water Parsnip) – long, fleshy root is edible raw and has a sweet carrot-like flavor

Pastinaca sativa (Wild Parsnip) – wild form of the domesticated parsnip, may be eaten similarily

Perideridia sp. (Yampah) – all species are edible, raw finger-like roots have a pleasant nutty flavor when raw and resemble carrots when cooked

Ribes sp. (Currant, Gooseberry) – most wild species are edible raw, very few are inpalatable

Cornus nuttallii (dogwood)

Celtis reticulata (Net-leaved Hackberry) –

Chenopodium sp. (Lambs-quarters) – leaves, tops and seeds of all species are edible

Vitis californica (grape) – all parts of the plant are edible except for the root

Vaccinium sp. (Huckleberry) –

Arbutus menziessii (madrone) –

Arctostaphylos sp. (manzanita)

Turning Trash into Trees



– saving seed from fruit and local trees…

+ recycling trash containers into tree pots…

+ composting kitchen scraps and all organic matter (card paper, non-glossy cardboard, egg cartons, …)


SEED + COMPOST (+CONTAINERS) = TREES (one of the most important commodities of our future)


important note: Please..¬†do not purchase/consume wasteful products to fake-recycle it. We personally collect all the cardboard, plastic, and other trash/recycling out of our communities garbage. And if any wasteful products already pass through you, now you know what you should do. ūüĆ≤

Clear plastic bottles prepared upside down, with the bottleneck being the bottom can be easily held within carboard boxes for a season or any number of holders. This also helps with light-proofing the rootzone when there isnt any internal light-proof, lining (like cardboard).
A dozen date seedlings growing out of right-side-up, clear plastic bottles. Sitting flat on a cardboard tray
Moringa in some plastic bottles
More bottles, more moringa – to be…
Plastic bottles with the bottleneck end down, being held within large pots. ^ Leucaena… ^
Most of these Mexican sunflower cuttings are establishing in clear plastic, water jugs. WITHOUT light-proof lining (like cardboard). Seem to be doing fine. This picture was taken in the afternoon, on the last day of a solid week of 100+ degrees F. Below is a simple light-proofing method for the root zone of sensitive plants (Mex. Sunflower is a beast)
seasonally light-proofing clear plastic pots, via cardboard
Unrecyclable tetrapacks make long-lasting tree pots, and considering they are food-grade (whatever that means) they are not toxic to the plants


NOTE: text on the cardboard boxes is completely unrelated to the purpose of this article.

Shown in the above picture in the larger, right box – are tamarind and moringa seedlings growing out in thick tubes of cardboard. Which will last over a year, and may be planted whole into the ground. In the smaller box, there are several plastic drink bottles with there bottoms cut off, to allow another inch or two of soil depth for the tree seedlings (compared to cutting off the top – bottleneck portion of the plastic). A drainage hole is punctured through the bottle cap.

Thin card-paper walls of orange juice cartons will last at least a year, recycled protein powder containers shown on each side
recycled card-paper milk and juice cartons, water jugs, many recycled tetra packs (tetra packs last at least 2 years)


These are all recent fig divisions that are settling into there new containers. Far right, white colored pots are 1 gallon – plastic water jugs with the tops cut off, and then the inside walls lined with cardboard to protect the figs roots from any light. These figs will be in these pots for under a year, at which time the cardboard can be replaced. Other temporary (1 year) pot liners for clear containers could be most other paper trash or even a thick lining of straw/dry grass.



Theoretical Game-Plan for the GrassRoots Restoration of California’s Ecology


FIRST AND FOREMOST: There must be a farming revolution. We need to shift our focus to the cultivation of staple, and long-lived perennial crops. This allows much greater use of eroded, marginal and local/urban lands, among other things… Californias’ livestock industry is ready to be scrapped. Unfortunately all the policies in the world can’t pick up a shovel and plant a tree, so ecological commen sense must be excercized by each individual (respectively) above all else (and then subsequently demanded by the citizens of the world).


MacroRestoration: (the restoration of entire counties and/or states)

A) Reforestation of native tree species (pinus sp., quercus sp., arbutus sp., alnus sp., calocedrus decurrens, aesculus californica, cercis sp., umbellularia californica platanus racemosa, heteromeles arbutifolia, sequioadendron giganteum) and Afforestation of foreign, non-invasive tree species (pinus sp., quercus sp., alnus sp., cedrus sp.).

first succession of macro-forestation: pinus sp., quercus sp., aesculus californica, ceanothus sp., calocedrus decurrens, cercis sp., heteromeles arbutifolia

one decade of stability/quarantine, then…

second succession of macro-forestation: arbutus sp., araucaria sp., pinus sp., quercus sp., alnus sp., platanus racemosa, umbellularia californica

one or more decades of stability/quarantine, then…

(later successions will be highly dependant upon observations of the first two)

B) Meadow Building with native herbs and particular legumes (red clover, annual and perennial lupine, vetch/ plantain, yellow dock, dandelion, non-invasive wild helianthus species*

C) Waterway Restoration + Watershed Management¬†“plugging the bathtub” – reversing the mass erosion caused by crude mining activities and the corruption of watersheds by poor city planning. Everything from city design to transportation must be for the environments sake (theoretically obvious, yet practically invisible)

D) Land-Based, Community Building – regrounding the people: ‘lure’ them back into nature just as they were ‘lured’ into industrial culture. Example the potentials of localized and residential food production (Specifically the societal stability/Efficient resource management that comes from simple, circular and free trade economies), the ease involved with tree starting and land care.

Perennial food systems (tree-based food production)

Local Power Systems (integrated solar-electric buildings, wind turbines, hydro-electric, large-scale bio digesters, geothermal, integration of compressed air as a basic utility of society)


MicroRestoration: (the restoration of private or public lands – specific lands, usually under 1,000 acres, any where from an urban backyard or city park, to abandoned mining sites and pasture land.

A) Reforestation of native tree species (pinus sp., quercus sp., umbellularia californica, cercis sp., arctostaphylos sp., calocedrus decurrens, aesculus californica, heteromeles arbutifolia, sequioadendron giganteum, alnus sp., morus sp., juglans nigra, arbutus sp.,) and Afforestation of foreign, non-invasive tree species (pinus sp., quercus sp., cedrus sp., alnus sp., aracauria sp., fraxinus sp.)

first succession of micro-forestation: pinus sp., quercus sp., aesculus californica, heteromeles arbutifolia, arctostaphylos sp., juglans nigra, calocedrus decurrens, alnus sp., aracauria sp.

a few years of stability/quarantine, then…

second succession of micro-forestation: pinus sp., cercis sp., arctostaphylos sp., alnus sp., sequoiadendron giganteum, araucaria sp., fraxinus sp.

several years of stability/quarantine, then…

(later successions will be highly dependant upon observations of the first two)

B) Meadow Building with native herbs and particular legumes (red clover, annual and perennial lupine, vetch/ plantain, yellow dock, dandelion, non-invasive wild helianthus species*

C) Simple Earthworks + Waterway/Watershed improvementplugging the bathtub or creating a bathtub” – reversing the mass erosion caused by crude mining activities and corrupted watersheds. Everything from city design to transportation must be for the environments sake. Environmentally speaking: as a state (CA), we are most in need of surface-level hydraulic infrastructure (aqueducts, canals, dams, cisterns, water tanks) if we are ever going to stabilize back to a resource-based economy (versus our digitally, over-leveraged, paper economy).

D) Land-Based, Community Building – regrounding the people: ‘lure’ them back into nature just as they were ‘lured’ into industrial culture. Example the potentials of localized and residential food production (Specifically the societal stability/Efficient resource management that comes from simple, circular and free trade economies), the ease involved with tree starting and land care.

Perennial food systems (tree-based food production)

Residential Power Systems (solar power system, small-scale hydro-electric, ram-pumps, waterwheels, solar ovens, bio digesters, cob ovens, rocket mass heaters)

Maximizing Local Food Production With Large Trees That Fruit Prolifically and Live a Long Time

Whether you are localizing your food to your front porch, backyard or acreage of land, one or many of these high value fruit trees will massively lighten your food bill, and improve your fresh eating of clean food. AT THE VERY LEAST!




Monkey Puzzle (aracauria araucana) – 40m, slender evergreen, large delicious (roasted) nuts, hand-processing

Ginkgo (gingko biloba) – 30m, edible fruits (plum-like fruits) + edible seed, dioecious, deciduous

Golden Chinkapin (castanopsis chrysophylla) – up to 30m, edible (chestnut-like seed), california native

Stone Pine (pinus pinea) – high quality and heavy producing nut pine, 25m+, umbrella-like canopy, simple machinery makes for efficient harvest/processing

Mexican Pinyon (pinus cembroides) –¬†high quality and heavy producing nut pine,¬†simple machinery makes for efficient harvest/processing

Colorado Pinyon (pinus edulis) Рhigh quality and heavy producing nut pine, simple machinery makes for efficient harvest/processing

Korean nut Pine (pinus koraiensis) –¬†high quality and heavy producing nut pine,¬†simple machinery makes for efficient harvest/processing

Holm/Holly Oak (quercus ilex) –¬†edible acorns (roasted or floured), 25m evergreen

Cork oak (quercus suber) – edible acorns (roasted or floured)

Walnut (juglans sp.) – 15 – 30m, 200 years, deciduous

European/Spanish Chestnut (castanea sativa) – 23m, 500 years, deciduous

Pecan (carya illinoensis) – 30 to 40m, 130 years, deciduous, edible (easy harvest/processing)

Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) – 22m, 50+ years, requires dry/ hot summers, hardy to 20F, dioecious, without dense plantings of equally male and female date palms, dates require hand-pollination (dates are naturally wind pollinated), 1 male produces enough pollen for 100 females for manual pollination. hundreds of pounds of dates per mature palm

Carob (ceratonia siliqua) – 15m, 100 years, dioecious, slow growing, evergreen

Persimmon (diospyros americana and d. kaki) Р18m, 40 years, deciduous, typically dioecious

Wild Fig (ficus carica) Р10m, 100 years, fast growing, flood tolerant

Mulberry (m. alba, m. nigra) – 13m, 100 years, fast growing, flood tolerant

Grape (vitis sp.) – 10m, 100 years, fast growing, flood tolerant,

White sapote (casimiroa edulis) – 5m to 16m, hardy to 20F, fast growing, very edible

Avocado (persea americana) Р10m, hardy to light frost, requires well-aerated root zone, very edible

Sapodilla (manilkara zapota) – 10m, hardy to light frost, requires well-aerated root zone, very edible

(Potentially Mesquite)



Red Mulberry


Chestnut (castanea sp.)

Walnut (juglans sp.)

Grape (vitis sp.) –






Brazil nut




Minimum Temperature Tolerances of Sub/Tropical Fruit Trees

It is usually best to direct seed, to have specifically adapted varieties for exact microclimates on your site (from birth/germination). Temperature swings also vary greatly in urban environments compared to more stable temp changes on heavily vegetated sites. Seasonal temperature variations are highly relevant to any specific locations’ environmental health/stability. For the best results integrate as complete an ecosystem around each and every vulnerable fruit tree as possible, on every scale as possible (residential… local… regional…). Lots of understory – rapidly growing herbs, help to humidity and subsequently warm the immediate environment (especially year after year, when the soil is well structured and efficiently fertile (high Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC)/nutrient cycles). In most cases the most helpful frost protection is thin-canopied evergreen, overstory trees (or thick-canopied deciduous trees: moringa, tipuana) that still allow great light exposure and ventilation. (prosopis sp., pinus sp., aracauria sp., casaurina sp.,..) – Natural Greenhouse.
Absolute hardiness by climate zone is extremely difficult to measure, because while two different plants may succumb at temperatures below 32F, one may survive fine in winter regions where temperatures regularly drop between 32-40F, while the other may decline and eventually die if temperatures stay between 32-40F for more than a few days. Nevertheless, knowing the absolute minimum temperature a tropical/subtropical plant can tolerate can still be quite useful, so below we have listed a number of plants, sorted by minimum climate zone.
Plants are listed by USDA zone, with general winter temperature minimums.
Below Zone 8 (below 10F/below -12C)‚Ä®

Actinidia arguta – Hardy Kiwi (to -25F)

Cydonia oblonga –¬†Quince

Ficus carica – Fig

Salvia sclarea –¬†Clary Sage

Vitis californica –¬†California Wild Grape

Zone 8a (10 to 15F/-12 to -9.5C)‚Ä®

Actinidia chinensis –¬†Golden Kiwi Fruit

Actinidia deliciosa –¬†Kiwi Fruit

Butia capitata – Jelly Palm

Butia eriospatha – Wooly Jelly Palm

Camellia pitardii –¬†Camellia

Eriobotrya japonica –¬†Loquat

Morus nigra –¬†Black Mulberry

Punica granatum – Pomegranate

Tecoma sambucifolia –¬†Waranway

Zone 8b (15 to 20F/-9.5 to -6.5C)

Arbutus unedo – Strawberry Tree

Berberis nevinii –¬†Nevin’s Baberry

Brahea armata –¬†Mexican Blue Palm

Drimys winteri –¬†Winter’s Bark

Feijoa sellowiana – Pineapple Guava

Morus macroura –¬†Himalayan Mulberry

Myrtus communis – Myrtle

Olea europaea – Olive

Zone 9a (20 to 25F/-6.5 to -4C)

Acmena smithii –¬†Lilly Pilly

Aegle marmelos –¬†Bael Fruit

Araucaria bidwillii –¬†Bunya-Bunya, False Monkey Puzzle Tree

Araucaria aracauna – Monkey Puzzle Tree

Aracauria angustifolia –

Azara petiolaris – Holly Azara

Brahea edulis – Guadalupe Palm

Canna edulis – Achira, Arrowroot

Carica pubescens – Mountain Papaya

Carica quercifolia – Oak Leaved Papaya

Carissa macrocarpa –¬†Natal Plum

Caryota urens – Wine Palm, Toddy Palm

Casimiroa edulis –¬†White Sapote

Casimiroa tetrameria –¬†Wooly-Leaved Sapote

Ceratonia siliqua – Carob

Psidium guajava – Guava

Citrus sp. – Citrus Fruits (mandarin, tangerine)

Clausena lansium – Wampee

Dovyalis caffra – Kei Apple

Eugenia aggregata –¬†Cherry of the Rio Grande

Eugenia uniflora –¬†Surinam Cherry

Fuchsia boliviana –¬†Bolivian Fuchsia

Fuchsia triphylla –¬†Honeysuckle Fuchsia

Macadamia integrifolia –¬†Smooth Shelled Macadamia Nut

Malpighia glabra – Acerola

Myrciaria cauliflora –¬†Jaboticaba

Persea americana – Avocado

Phoenix dactylifera – Date Palm

Prunus lyonii –¬†Catalina Island Cherry

Vaccinium gaultheriifolium –¬†Chinese Blueberry

Zone 9b (25 to 30F/-4 to -1C)‚Ä®

Aleurites moluccana – Candlenut

Aleurites trisperma – Otaheite Walnut

Annona cherimola –¬†Cherimoya

Annona cherimola x squamosa – Atemoya

Annona montana –¬†Mountain Soursop

Annona reticulata –¬†Custard Apple

Annona squamosa –¬†Sugar Apple

Antidesma bunius – Bignay

Aristolochia ringens –¬†Gaping Dutchman’s Pipe

Aristolochia trilobata –¬†Dutchman’s Pipe

Averrhoa carambola –¬†Star Fruit

Brosimum alicastrum – Breadnut

Calyptropsidium sartorianum – Sartre Guava, Arrayan

Citrus sp. – Citrus Fruits (orange, blood orange, grapefruit, meyer lemon)

Cyphomandra betacea –¬†Tree Tomato

Davidsonia pruriens – Davidson’s Plum

Dimocarpus longan – Longan

Diospyros digyna –¬†Black Sapote

Eugenia brasiliensis – Grumichama

Fuchsia procumbens –¬†Creeping Fuchsia

Litchi chinensis –¬†Lychee

Mangifera indica –¬†Mango

Manilkara zapota –¬†Sapodilla

Marliera edulis – Cambuca

Musa acuminataxbalbisiana – Banana (Orinoco, brazil apple, ice cream, red, tai black)

Tamarindus indica – Tamarind

Zone 10a (30 to 35F/-1 to 2C)‚Ä®

Anacardium occidentale –¬†Cashew Nut

Ananas comosus – Pineapple

Annona diversifolia –¬†Ilama

Annona glabra –¬†Pond Apple

Annona muricata –¬†Soursop

Artocarpus heterophyllus –¬†Jackfruit

Azadirachta indica – Neem

Bixa orellana – Lipstick Tree

Blighia sapida –¬†Akee

Bunchosia armeniaca –¬†Peanut Butter Fruit

Carica papaya –¬†Papaya

Cereus repandus – Peruvian Apple Cactus

Chrysophyllum cainito –¬†Star Apple

Cinnamomum zeylanicum – Cinnamon

Coccoloba uvifera –¬†Sea Grape

Coffea arabica –¬†Coffee

Dillenia indica – Elephant Apple

Eugenia reinwardtiana –¬†Cedar Bay Cherry

Grewia subinaequalis – Phalsa

Harpephyllum caffrum – Kaffir Plum

Hylocereus undatus – Dragon Fruit

Inga edulis –¬†Ice Cream Bean‚Ä®Inga feuillei – Pacay

Leucaena leucocephala – Koa Haole, Leadtree

Mammea americana РMamey Apple

Manilkara bidentata – Ausubo

Melicoccus bijugatus –¬†Mamoncillo

Melicope ternata – Wharangi, Gum Tree

Murraya koenigii – Curry Leaf

Myrciaria dubia – camu-camu

Zone 10b (35 to 40F/ 2 to 4.5C)

Pandanus tectorius –¬†Screw Pine

Byrsonima crassifolia –¬†Nance

Cocos nucifera – Coconut

Durio dulcis –¬†Durian

Eugenia megacarpa –¬†Giant Lau Lau

Morinda citrifolia – Noni

Theobroma cacao – Cacao

Zone 11+ (40 to 45F/ 4.5 to 7C)‚Ä®

Cola acuminata –¬†Cola Nut

Garcinia mangostana –¬†Mangosteen

Lansium domesticum – Langsat

Zone 11+ (45 to 55F/ 7 to 13C)‚Ä®

Artocarpus altilis –¬†Breadfruit

Zone 11+ (55+F/ 13+C)‚Ä®

Areca catechu – Betel Nut

Bertholletia excelsa –¬†Brazil Nut

Rapid Ecological Succession

These species of plants have the capacity to rapidly stabilize eroded environments, specifically utilizing plant species that can be propagated and multiplied very easily with cuttings/divisions (WITHOUT ROOTING HORMONE) or naturally with reseeding. Taking cuttings is the most efficient way to catalyze succession, particularily with the following species of plants:


TREES (some examples)

moringa – very fast growing, easy cuttings

leucaena – very fast growing, efficient reseeding

mulberry – fast growing, easy cuttings, efficient reseeding

fig – fast growing, easy cuttings

date palm and jelly palm – easy divisions

SHRUBS (some examples)

mexican sunflower – great biomass, easy cuttings, very fast growing

chaya – great biomass, easy cuttings

cassava – great biomass (tuber), easy cuttings, fast growing

hibiscus sp. – easy cuttings

goji – easy cuttings, efficient reseeding

buckeye – efficient reseeding

HERBS (some examples)

longevity spinach – easy cuttings, fast growing

mugwort – easy divisions

artichoke – easy divisions

potato – easy divisions

sweet potato – easy divisions

fennel – easy divisions

clover – efficient reseeding

borage – very efficient reseeding

lupine – efficient reseeding

yarow – efficient reseeding

comfrey – easy divisions

plantain – efficient reseeding

amaranth – efficient reseeding

VINES (some examples)

grape – easy cuttings, efficient reseeding


aloe vera – easy divisions, simple cuttings

jade – easy cuttings

san pedro – fast growing, simple cuttings


One Hundred High-Value Perennials, You Should Know About (California) – SUBTROPICS


The uses and potentials of common (edible) perennials is already relatively known, so they are not included in this list, but some are listed here, so they are not out of sight; chestnut, hazelnut, almond, apricot, plum… Stone fruit/pome fruit, pomegranate, olive, citrus sp., pistachio, pecan, artichoke, asparagus, garlic, kale, rhubarb, ribes sp., rubus sp., fennel…


Important note: all of these observances /guidelines are somewhat relative and not globally absolute. And just as importantly; the performance of any plant will reach full potential when direct seeded (in a suitable environment). If this is not economical, then don’t go past homegrowing it, as outdoors and ‘wild’/natural as possible. Majority of modern day nursery culture is completely industrial, resulting in a lineup of spoiled tropicals destined for subtropical/temperate environments, and if you dont plant in a compost pile and flood irrigate daily, these plants will have a very long establishment period. If you raise your plants by seed, yourself, in a lot of ways they are established before even being planted out.


No specific order (everything is frost+drought tolerant unless otherwise noted) _______________________________________________________________________________________

Sequoia (sequoiadendron giganteum) – very, very large (90m+), and very long-lived evergreen tree, very important ecological function, colossal habitat value for everything and everyone, prefers summer moisture (stream-side/moist valley)

Incense cedar (calocedrus decurrens) – very large and long-lived evergreen tree, fire retardant, fragrant

Holm/Holly Oak (quercus ilex) 25m, evergreen, one of the most edible oak species, (low tannins), one of the top three trees used to establish truffle orchards

Cork Oak (quercus suber) – 20m, evergreen, 200+ years, one of the most edible oak species, very fire retardant, common in southern european agroforestry, commercial source of cork

Stone pine (pinus pinea) – long lived, edible, tall umbrella canopy, very drought/heat tolerant

Bay laurel (laurus nobilis) – very heat/drought tolerant, culinary, psychoactive, large shrub/small tree, evergreen

Chusan/ Windmill Palm (trachycarpus fortunei) Рfast growing, moderately edible, tolerates cool, moist summers and cold winters, fan palm

King Palm (archontophoenix cunninghamiana) Рfast growing, drought intolerant, flood tolerant, adaptable, hardy to 25F

Chinese Mahogany (toona sinensis) – young leaves are a common vegetable, fast growing, deciduous, 25m

Banana Yucca (yucca baccata) –¬†very heat/drought tolerant, edible

Peruvian Apple Cactus (cereus repandus) Рvery heat/drought tolerant, edible, thornless fruit, grows to 10m, frost tender

Chilean Wine Palm (jubae chilensis) Рhuge palm, traditionally used for wine, very heat/drought tolerant

Jaboticaba (myrciaria cauliflora) –¬†some frost tolerance, drought intolerant, prolific fruiting, small tree, some shade tolerance, thorns, slow growth

Golden Chinkapin (castanopsis chrysophylla) ‚Äď up to 30m, edible (chestnut-like seed), CA native

Pepino (solanum muricatum) – some frost tolerance/tender perennial, drought intolerant + requires humidity, sprawling shrub (tomato-like in growth), edible, prolific

Raisin tree (hovenia dulcis) – hardy to -10F, drought intolerant, fast growing, short forest tree, edible, prolific fruiting, 20m, deciduous,

Quince (cydonia oblonga) – resilient fruit tree, moderately edible, tap-rooted, small to mid-size tree

Longan (dimocarpus longan) – 30m, evergreen, very little frost tolerance, edible, prolific fruiting, requires humidity, requires well-aerated root zone, drought intolerant

Lychee (litchi chinensis) – 15m, evergreen, very little frost tolerance, edible, prolific fruiting, requires humidity, requires well-aerated root zone, drought intolerant

Himalayan olive (elaeocarpus lanceifolius) – some frost tolerance, uniquely edible (characteristics of olive/avocado ‘hybrid’), commonly pickled, adaptable(foothill native)

Wampee (clausena lansium) – 3 to 8m evergreen, some frost tolerance, citrus relative, edible, shade tolerant

Phalsa (grewia asiatica) – small tree, edible, prolific fruiting, shade tolerance, sun-loving

Sapodilla (manilkara zapota) – some frost tolerance, drought intolerant, naturally grows to 30m

Pawpaw (asimina triloba) – small, shade tolerant tree, highly edible, hardy to -20F, suckering -understory fruit tree, adaptable and resilient traits

White Sapote (casimiroa edulis) – 10m, prolific fruiting, evergreen tree, highly edible, intolerant of humidity and strong heat, shade tolerant, citrus relative: (opportunistic citrus-like root system). Tolerant of cold/wet feet (foothill winter)

Loquat (eriobotrya japonica) – sun-loving as well as shade tolerant, edible, hardy to 20F, small tree, intolerant of extreme heat/drought, dense canopy

Tamarind (tamarindus indica) – fast growing, leguminous tree, edible + medicinal, hardy to 28F when established (frost intolerant when small)

White + Black Mulberry (morus alba + m. nigra) Himalayan/Pakistan Mulberry (morus macroura) Рvery drought/heat tolerant, prolific fruiting, easy cuttings, flood tolerant, some shade tolerance, deciduous, very edible

Fig/ CA Wild Fig (ficus carica) – very drought/heat tolerant, prolific fruiting, easy cuttings, 10m, flood tolerant, shade tolerant, deciduous, very edible

Grape/ CA Wild Grape (Vitis sp.) Рvery drought/heat tolerant, prolific fruiting, easy cuttings, flood tolerant, shade tolerant, deciduous, edible

Mango (mangifera indica) Рsome varieties hardy to 20F (kent and Keitt mangoes have survived hard frosts Рzone 8), fruit production is a different story, but can be done in zone 9, drought intolerant

Chinese water chestnut (eleocharus dulcis) Рvery productive crop, aquatic, drought intolerant

She-oak (casuarina sp.) Р5m to 35m, evergreen, some species are flood tolerant, most species are quite salt tolerant, open canopy

Soaplant (chlorogalum pomeridianum) Рvery heat/drought tolerant, can be used as fiber for clay plaster, bulbous annual used as a natural soap

Miners lettuce (claytonia perfoliata) – shade tolerant annual, reseeds easily, edible salad green

Jelly palm (butia capitata) –¬†quite edible (apricot-like), very drought/heat tolerant, short palm, hardy to 15F

Bilberry (vaccinium myrtillus) Рhighly edible and medicinal, berry bush, drought intolerant

Chilean Guava/Murta (ugni molinae) – 3m evergreen, small edible fruit (strawberry-like)

Box-leaved Barberry (berberis microphylla) – 1.5m, evergreen, commercial fruit in chile and argentina (highly edible), medicinal, red dye, spines

Sea kale (crambe maritima) – perennial, leafy vegetable, tap-rooted

Water lotus (nelumbo nucifera) РAmerican and Chinese species both highly edible, ornamental aquatic herb

Watercress (nasturtium officinale) Рvery nutritious, heat intolerant, shade tolerant, loves stream environment

Canna lily (canna edulis) –¬†edible rhizome when raw or cooked, shade tolerant herb, drought intolerant

Jojoba (simmondsia chinensis) Рvery drought/heat tolerant, edible nuts, dynamic shrub, high value oil (similar in function to whale oil)

CA Wild Rose (rosa californica) – quite edible/nutritiously delicious/medicinal, sun-loving and shade tolerant, thorny shrub

Manzanita (Arctostaphyllos sp.) Рquite edible/medicinal: especially when used as a flour, very drought/heat tolerant, shrub, efficient reseeding/prolific fruiting

Purple Star Apple (chrysophyllum cainito) Рvery drought/heat tolerant, edible, thorns, some frost tolerance, fast growing, 20m

Moringa (moringa oleifera) –¬†very fast growing, diversely edible, easy cuttings, multifunctional tree, prolific fruiting, open canopy

Tipa/Rosewood (tipuana tipu) – very fast growing, aggressive roots, invasive potential, efficient nitrogen fixer, large and long-lived, deciduous tree, dense canopy, (good avocado companion)

Catalina Island Cherry (prunus lyonii) – 10m, narrow evergreen, edible (large black cherries)

Natal Plum (carissa macrocarpa) – spiny evergreen shrub, salt-tolerant (5000 ppm), edible,

Star Fruit (averrhoa carambola) – 6m evergreen, prolific fruiting, some frost tolerance

Ensete (ensete ventricosum) Рdrought intolerant, staple starch crop(with work), some frost tolerance

Naranjilla (solanum quitoense) Рdrought intolerant, requires deep shade, edible

Surinam Cherry + Cherry of the Rio Grande (eugenia sp.) Р8m, edible, resilient fruit trees, evergreen

Mountain Papaya (carica pubescens) Рquite frost hardy to 20F, drought intolerant, a little less edible than common papaya. Traditionally used in drinks. NOTE: there are several frost tolerant, moderately edible carica species, C. Pubescens is one of the most popular/edible

Moso Bamboo¬†(phyllostachys pubescens) –¬†very tall bamboo in its native habitat (90ft.), spreading, invasive potential, timber quality, edible

Banana (musa sp.) – drought intolerant, there are several frost tolerant banana varieties (dwarf and std. size) that are being fruited in zone 8b with a lot of effort, zone 9b with a little effort (Orinoco, Brazil Apple, Tai Black, Ice Cream, Red, Hua Moa)

Lead-tree/Leucaena (leucaena leucopetala) Рvery fast growing, one of the most efficient nitrogen fixers, small tree, frost intolerant, after frost it will resprout from roots/hardwood (similar to moringa), invasive potential, multifunctional tree, salt tolerant, open canopy, shade tolerant

Mesquite (prosopis sp.) – very drought/heat tolerant, moderately edible(with processing), prolific fruiting, usually thorns, salt tolerant, great fodder

Pineapple guava (acca sellowiana) Рedible, erect shrub, shade tolerance

Acerola cherry (malpighia emarginata) –¬†very drought/heat tolerant, highly edible,

Bael/Wood Apple (aegle marmelos) – hardy to 20F, very drought/heat tolerant, edible, thorns, fruiting requires prolonged dry season (6 mo.)

Carob (ceratonia siliqua) Рhardy to 20F, very drought/heat tolerant, slow growing, dioecious, edible, evergreen, dioecious, great fodder

Russian Olive¬†(elaeagnus angustifolia) –¬†one of the most efficient nitrogen fixing plants, moderately edible, deciduous, small shrubs/trees, invasive potential, close relative to goumi and autumn olive

Siberian Pea Shrub (caragana arborescens) – 2 to 6m, edible shrub, fast growing, efficient nitrogen fixer, great fodder

Sea Berry (elaeagnus rhamnoides) – 10m, efficient nitrogen fixer, moderately edible/ highly medicinal, hardy to -40F, thorns, dioecious, large shrub, salt tolerant

Goji berry (lycium chinense) Рvery drought/heat tolerant, slightly thorny shrub, edible/medicinal, easy cuttings

Comfrey (symphytum officinale) Рherbaceous perennial, very fast growing, medicinal, easy root divisions, frost intolerant, invasive potential

Sunflower (helianthus sp.) h. maximiliani, h. divaricatus, h. tuberosus – all three highly edible tuberous sunflower species, vigorous and productive without fertilization or irrigation, invasive potential

Mexican Sunflower (tithonia diversifolia) Рvery fast growing, easy cuttings, multifunctional shrub, commonly used as a bio-fertilizer

Pigeon Pea (cajanus cajun) Рshort lived shrub, fast growing, efficient nitrogen fixer, edible, great fodder

Chaya/Tree Spinach (cnidoscolus aconitifolius) Рvery fast growing, shrub, easy cuttings, edible(with cooking)

Cassava (manihot esculenta) Рfast growing, very drought/heat tolerant, tuberous tropical, edible(with cooking), easy cuttings, frost intolerant

Hemp/Cannabis (cannabis sativa) Рfast growing, highly medicinal, edible seeds, fiber, hempcrete

Aloe Vera (aloe vera) Рvery drought/heat tolerant when given some shade, highly medicinal and multifunctional, easy pup divisions, some frost tolerance

Vetiver (chrysopogon zizanioides) Рvery drought(6 mo.)/heat(110*) tolerant, fast growing, very strong and deep roots, 2m bunchgrass, easy divisions

Chachafruto (erythrina edulis) Рtropical legume, prolific fruiting, frost intolerant, invasive potential

Palo Verde (parkinsonia sp.) Рvery drought/heat tolerant, prolific fruiting, invasive potential

Prickly Pear (opuntia ficus-indica) Рvery drought/heat tolerant, thorns, easy cuttings, edible(with work)

San Pedro (echinopsis pachanoi) Рvery drought/heat tolerant, fast growing columnar cactus, medicinal/psychoactive, easy cuttings

Roselle (hibiscus sabdariffa) – (and hibiscus acetosella) – woody-based subshrub, quite edible, popular tea, easy cuttings, fiber, red dye

Monkey Puzzle (aracauria araucana) Рvery large (30 Р40m), long-lived evergreen, edible, usually dioecious

Princess (paulownia tomentosa) Р15m, one of the fastest growing trees in the world, drought intolerant, pollution tolerant, deciduous, broadleaf,

Date (phoenix dactylifera) Рhardy to 20F, very drought/heat tolerant, dioecious, hand-pollination required, prolific fruiting, easy pup divisions, pollution tolerant

Purslane (portulaca oleracea) Рedible/medicinal (salad green), low-growing succulent, efficient reseeding, very drought/heat tolerant, pollution tolerant

Elderberry (sambucus sp.) – 9m, deciduous, fast growing, moderately edible/ medicinal, open canopy

Egyptian spinach (corchorus oliterus) Рheat tolerant, quite edible and nutritious leaf (raw or cooked), commercial fiber, mid-size herb

Tree collards – easy cuttings, edible, perennial vegetable

Malabar spinach (basella alba) Рheat tolerant, edible, prolific vine, frost intolerant

Mexican breadfruit (monstera deliciosa) Рrequires full shade outdoors, highly edible, house plant, frost intolerant

Black Walnut (juglans nigra) – edible, very drought/heat tolerant, prolific fruiting, pollution tolerant

Madrone (arbutus menziesii) – shade loving, very drought tolerant, moderately edible, large manzanita-like tree

Strawberry Tree (arbutus unedo) – madrone relative, very drought/heat tolerant, edible, small evergreen tree

Strawberry Tree (muntingia calabura) – 12m, fast-growing, resilient pioneer, edible, some frost tolerance, evergreen

Chinese Bayberry (myrica rubra) – 10 to 20m evergreen, edible (flesh is sweet and very tart), dioecious, drought intolerant, n-fixing

Kei Apple (dovyalis caffra) – thorns, hardy to -6C/20F, edible (small apple like fruit), medium sized tree, mostly dioecious, salt and drought tolerant

Cherimoya (annona cherimola) – tap-rooted, fast growing, fruits in a few years from seed, hand pollination required, prolific fruiting*, sun-loving as well as shade tolerant

Dragon fruit (hylocereus undatus) Рsprawling/vining cacti, edible, frost intolerant, 10m

Avocado (persea americana) – fast growing, prolific fruiting, heat tolerant,, dense canopy

Guava (psidium guajava) – small evergreen tree, edible, shade tolerant

Jujube (ziziphus jujuba) Р5 to 10m, deciduous tree, very drought/heat tolerant, prolific fruiting, thorns, requires very little winter chill

Passion vine (passiflora edulis) – prolific fruiting, invasive potential

Acacias‘ (acacia senegal, a. baileyana) – very drought/heat tolerant, (a. victorae is edible), prolific fruiting/ self-seeding, small to medium sized trees, efficient nitrogen fixers, invasive potential, usually thorns, salt tolerant, good fodder

Kousa (cornus kousa) – 10m, deciduous tree, edible, dense canopy