Plant Utilities

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Living Fences + Windbreaks – Italian cypress, pigeon pea, pea shrub, rose hip (thorns), kei (thorns), bael (thorns)


Quick shade (fast growing and/or broad leaved species) – moringa oleifera, comfrey, rubus sp., buckeye, artichoke, paulownia tomentosa, tipuana tipu, leucaena leucopetala


Dryland Humidifier / Living Wells – ficus sp., acacia sp., prosopis sp., morus sp., vitis sp.,

Living Walls – ficus pumila, virginia creeper, kiwi, passionfruit (Maypop for colder loc.)


Ridge Caps /Key Climax Trees – cypress, cedars, pines, oaks, walnuts, aracauria sp., (other conifers+hardwood trees),


Efficient Denitrifiers (greywater/blackwater) – (monocots in general), grasses -(reeds to bananas), poplars, (most domesticated vegetables)

Efficient Nitrifiers – alnus sp., elaeagnus sp., cajanus cajan, cowpea, vetch, clover, lupinus sp., caragana arborescens, leucaena sp., tipuana tipu,

Fertility Crew/ Dynamic Acc. (Deep-rooted and/or fast growing and/or microbial advantage) – (native weeds), tithonia diversifolia, comfrey, lucerne, moringa oleifera, azolla, alfalfa, nettle, tipuana tipu, cajanus cajan, leucaena sp., (legumes),

Clay busters – (native weeds), burdock, comfrey, daikon, carrot, clover

Sand binders – bamboo (silica content), rice (silica content), comfrey (mucilaginous roots), common grasses (fibrous root structures), vetiver (very strong – several meter root structures), lemongrass (fibrous, spreading roots), mint, bermuda grass, mugwort

General erosion – bermuda grass, clover, most grasses, preferably perennials

Riparian erosion – mugwort, lemongrass, deer grass, vetiver ((perennial clump grasses)), sedges and rushes, grape, mint, (brambles),

Soil pests: mustard – (fights soil pests: nematodes,… Parasitic microbes)


RAPID SUCCESSION (easy cuttings/good reseeding/ easy divisions)

Trees: morus sp. (mulberry), ficus sp. (fig), moringa sp., acacia sp., leucaena sp., salix sp. (willow), buckeye, tipuana tipu, (maples), pinus sp., quercus sp.,

Shrubs/Vines: hibiscus sabdariffa, hibiscus acetosella, cassava, chaya, tithonia diversifolia, sambucus sp. (elderberry), vitis sp. (grape), lycium sp.,

Herbs: fennel, lemongrass, vetiver, (musa sp.), allium sp. (onion/garlic…), potato, sweet potato, tree collards, amaranthus sp., borage,


SHADE PRODUCTION (zero, or at most a few hours of direct sun per day)

Trees: asimina triloba (pawpaw), annona sp., sugar maple,

Shrubs/Vines: oysternut

Herbs: mexican breadfruit, naranjilla, coffee, turmeric, ginger, rhubarb, watercress,



chinese water chestnut, rice, cattail, mint, azolla, duckweed, (aquaponics -fish/fertilizer), canna lily, water lotus,



Deer herbs: all brassicas, rape, comfrey, moringa, artichoke,

turkeys: yellow nut sedge (cyperus esculentus)

birds: (small-seeded herbs)

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