Flora de California

List of California native plant species

Coniferous trees

Sequoias and redwoods

Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens)
Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) – in the fog-shrouded coast ranges.
Giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) – in the Sierra Nevada Mountains.

Pines 

Pinus ponderosa, Kings Canyon National Park
Bishop pine (Pinus muricata) – coastal species – gardens.
Coulter pine (Pinus coulteri)
Gray pine – digger pine (Pinus sabiniana)
Knobcone pine (Pinus attenuata)
Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) – well known in mountains
Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) – use for early construction of buildings and other structures
Monterey pine (Pinus radiata) – naturally limited endemic – widely planted horticulturally around the world.
Limber pine (Pinus flexilis)
Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi)
Parry pinyon (Pinus quadrifolia)
Shore pine (Pinus contorta)
Sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana)
Torrey pine (Pinus torreyana)
Western white pine (Pinus monticola)
Single-leaf pinyon pine (Pinus monophylla)
Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva)
Foxtail pine (Pinus balfouriana) – endemic
Monterey cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa)
Santa Lucia fir (Abies bracteata) and seven other native Abies species.
Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii)
Bigcone Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga macrocarpa)
California nutmeg (Torreya californica)
Incense cedar (Calocedrus decurrens)
Port Orford cedar-Lawson cypress (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana)
White fir (Abies concolor) – at high elevations
Mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana)
Red fir (Abies magnifica)

Oak Trees

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Canyon Live Oak (Quercus chrysolepis)

Valley oak (Quercus lobata) – the giant.
Leather oak (Quercus durata) – the shrubby one
Blue oak (Quercus douglasii) – in the Central Valley foothills and Coast Ranges
California black oak (Quercus kelloggii) – in the higher hills mountains
Canyon live oak (Quercus chrysolepis) – in the higher hills
Interior live oak (Quercus wislizenii) in the Central Valley region.
Island oak (Quercus tomentella) – endemic with distinctive large evergreen leaves.
Engelmann oak (Quercus engelmanni) – shade giving with a cool blue-gray cast to the foliage.
Coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia)

Riparian Trees

Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides)
California sycamore (Platanus racemosa)
White alder (Alnus rhombifolia)
Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides)
Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii)
Black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa)
Arroyo willow (Salix lasiolepis)
Tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus)
California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica)
Madrone (Arbutus menziesii)
Toyon (Heteromeles arbutifolia)
Bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum)
Western blue elderberry (Sambucus mexicana)
California Buckeye (Aesculus californica)
Western redbud (Cercis occidentalis)
California black walnut (Juglans californica)
California hazelnut (Corylus cornuta)

 

Shrub Species

Fremontodendron californicum (California flannelbush)
Chamise or greasewood (Adenostoma fasciculatum)
Service-berry (Amelanchier alnifolia)

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Manzanita (Arctostaphylos spp.)

Coyote brush (Baccharis pilularis)
California lilacs (Ceanothus spp.)
Flannelbush (Fremontodendron spp.)
Creosote bush (Larrea tridentata)
Lupines (Lupinus spp.)
Snowberry (Symphoricarpos mollis & spp.)
Huckleberry (Vaccinium ovatum & spp.)
Coffeeberry (Rhamnus spp.)
Lemonade berry (Rhus integrifolia)
Sugarbush (Rhus ovata)
Gooseberries and currants (Ribes spp.)
Sages (Salvia spp.)

Desert species

Creosote bush (Larrea tridentata)
California fan palm (Washingtonia filifera)
Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia)
California juniper (Juniperus californica)
Blue palo verde (Parkinsonia florida)
Yellow foothill palo verde (Parkinsonia microphylla)
Single-leaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla)
Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii)
Ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens)
Creosote bush (Larrea tridentata)
Indian mallow (Abutilon palmeri)
Brittlebush (Encelia farinosa)
Desert agave (Agave deserti)
California barrel cactus (Ferocactus cylindraceus)
Banana yucca (Yucca baccata)
Mojave yucca (Yucca schidigera)
Rush milkweed (Asclepias subulata)
Purple desert sand-verbena (Abronia villosa)
Sacred datura (Datura wrightii)

Selected Perennials

Eriogonum fasciculatum (California buckwheat)

Sunny habitats

California poppy (Eschscholzia californica)
Douglas iris (Iris douglasiana)
Monkeyflower e.g.: Mimulus aurantiacus, Mimulus guttatus, Mimulus cardinalis
Columbine (Aquilegia spp.)
Coyote mint (Monardella spp.)
Buckwheats (Eriogonum fasciculatum), (Eriogonum giganteum), (Eriogonum umbellatum)

Shady habitats

Western wild ginger (Asarum caudatum)
Pacific bleeding-heart (Dicentra formosa)
Island coral bells (Heuchera maxima)
Canyon coral bells (Heuchera hirsutissima)
Heucherella
Threeleaf foamflower (Tiarella trifoliata)
Redwood sorrel (Oxalis oregana)

Ferns

Polypody ferns (Polypodium), e.g.: Polypodium californicum
Native sword ferns (Polystichum), e.g.: Polystichum munitum
Giant chain fern (Woodwardia fimbriata)
Goldback ferns (Pteridium spp.)
Wood ferns (Dryopteris spp.), e.g.: Dryopteris arguta
Maidenhair ferns (Adiantum spp.) e.g.: Adiantum jordanii

Selected bulbs

Brodiaea coronaria (California hyacinth)
Ithuriel’s spear (Triteleia spp.)
Meadow onion (Allium monticola)
Goldenstars (Bloomeria crocea)
Brodiaeas (Brodiaea spp.)
Blue dicks-ookow (Dichelostemma capitatum): one of the most common native bulb species throughout California; found in grassland and dry meadow habitats
Mariposa lilies (Calochortus spp.): available from reputable horticultural sources; taking from the wild is illegal and is resulting in significant declines of some species from over collecting.

Selected annuals and wildflowers

Baby blue eyes (Nemophila menziesii)
Blazing star (Mentzelia lindleyi)
California poppy (Eschscholzia californica)
Chinese houses (Collinsia heterophylla)
Elegant clarkia (Clarkia unguiculata)
Farewell-to-spring (Clarkia amoena)
Meadowfoam (Limnanthes douglasii)
Miner’s lettuce (Claytonia perfoliata)
Tarweed (Madia elegans)
Wind poppy (Stylomecon heterophylla)

Selected Vines

Aristolochia californica (Dutchman’s pipe)
Dutchman’s pipe vine (Aristolochia spp.)
Morning glory (Calystegia spp.)
Chaparral clematis (Clematis lasiantha)
Western virgin’s bower (Clematis ligusticifolia)
Calabazilla (Cucurbita foetidissima)
Wild cucumber-manroot (Marah fabaceus)
Cucamonga manroot-bigroot (Marah macrocarpus)
California wild grape (Vitis californica)
Desert wild grape (Vitis girdiana)

Selected Grasses

Festuca californica
Purple three-awn (Aristida purpurea)
Blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis)
California fescue (Festuca californica)
Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis)
Red fescue (Festuca rubra)
Junegrass (Koeleria macrantha)
Giant wildrye (Leymus condensatus)
California melic (Melica californica)
Deer grass (Muhlenbergia rigens)
Purple needlegrass (Nassella pulchra)
Indian ricegrass (Oryzopsis hymenoides)
Pine bluegrass (Poa secunda)

Grasslike plants

Sedges — (Carex spp.) (taller ‘bunch grass’ specimens and lower meadow spreaders)
Rushes — (Juncus spp.)
Western blue-eyed grass (Sisyrinchium bellum) and yellow-eyed-grass (Sisyrinchium californicum).

Selected Succulents

Coast dudleya (Dudleya caespitosa)
Chalk lettuce (Dudleya pulverulenta)
Coast dudleya (Dudleya caespitosa) – [CA endemic]
Canyon live-forever (Dudleya cymosa)
Fingertips (Dudleya edulis)
Giant chalk dudleya, Britton’s dudleya (Dudleya brittonii)
Lanceleaf liveforever (Dudleya lanceolata)

Sedums

Broadleaf stonecrop (Sedum spathulifolium) – San Bruno elfin butterfly host plant.
Coast sedum (Sedum oreganum)
Feather River stonecrop (Sedum albomarginatum) – [CA endemic, Sierras]
Red Mountain stonecrop (Sedum eastwoodiae) – [CA endemic, Mendocino]
Roseflower stonecrop (Sedum laxum)
Sierra stonecrop (Sedum obtusatum)

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